The Role of INGOs in World Politics with the Globalization Process

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The Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in World Politics with the Globalization Process

 

Abstract

The concept of globalization which caused a great change and transformation process in the modern sense after the Cold War, has been shaped by gaining a definition and dimension in every field. This concept which has evolved into a global civil society, has revealed international non-governmental organizations and multinational structures with the rapid spread of neoliberal values in the world. These structures play a role on the world stage as indispensable actors of global world politics today. The factors that enabled them to gain this powerful role have developed in the historical process within the framework of the increasing resources and universal values they hold. This research article touches on the structures of international non-governmental organizations that have developed with globalization and its brief history, civil society and effects of neoliberalism.

KEY WORDS: globalization, civil society, global civil society, neoliberalism, International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs)

 

Introduction

Globalization, which nowadays, does not have a clear definition as it brings a different dimension to every subject from every field. But globalization, which includes a change in general sense and a transformation in a period of time, has historically presented us its examples since the existence of humanity. In order to explain theglobalization with a modern and contemporary approach, it would be more appropiateto look at the post-1980s era. Developments in the world during the post-cold war period have reflected a political globalization process. Universally changing values ​​whose importance is better understood, Western-centered neoliberal approaches have turned into norms and spread rapidly to regions outside the West. In the same process, the concept of civil society, which is as old as the history of globalization, has found a field fordevelopment and transformation. Economic, social, cultural, political and social changes brought about by globalization; by paving the way for civil society and its activities, it has created a global civil society concept and has expanded its field considerably.       Individuals, states, groups, companies, and multinational structures now existin these organizations. In this way, global awareness, consciousness and transformation become easier. These INGOs maintain the practices that states have difficulty in realizing within the framework of their powers and limitations, in cooperation and solidarity. At the same time, multi-dimensional and comprehensive activities aimed at many problems such as human rights, environmental pollution, global warming, humanitarian intervention, poverty, famine and education, which concern all world citizens, achieve successful results with the innovative and entrepreneurial characters of NGOs. In this context, they have become important actors of world politics by reaching important positions in global governance and decision-making processes. When the literature is reviewed, globalization has been studied in large dimensions with very different concepts. Besides, in the light of civil society and neoliberalism, international organizations, international non-governmental organizations and multinational structures have been written by many important writers and academicians and qualified works have been produced.

Globalization and Its Brief History

Globalization, as a very broad concept which adds a different dimension to many issues today. Although it does not have a clear definition according to its conceptual emergence and the stages of change and transformation it has gone through until today, different researchers have presented different concepts. In general, we can consider globalization as a process of multidimensional transformation and rapid integration in economic, social political, and cultural fields with the return of technological developments. [1] In this multidimensional global change and transformation process, the importance of international non-governmental organizations has become increasingly important with its historical processes and has become a powerful guiding mechanism of world policies today. When we look at its historical background, although there is no clear discourse about when the term of globalization emerged, the existence of a global system is not denied in a recent history, especially since the 1990s. Rothschild argued that globalization, which she described as an undated phenomenon, is actually linked to the economic and social history of international relations and that it dates back to ancient times, especially when international trade, investment and communication increased. In this context, based on export and investment relations, it is mentioned that globalization dates back to the 1860s .[2]   According to another assessment, it is possible to take the globalization process in the modern sense from the early 19th century. We can see this process dating back to the 1820s as the emergence of modern globalization as mass migration, advanced communication and transportation technologies, the beginning of industrial growth models in Western Europe. The same article describes the transition period from 1770 to 1820; it is stated that factors of that period such as human rights, the spread of the nation-state, diplomatic and commercial development, economic development and labor power also included the emergence of globalization. It is even possible to find examples of the early globalization process dating back to 1492, when a new global awareness emerged. [3]

Globalization and Civil Society

The concept of civil society, which has become as important as globalization in recent years, shows a parallel development line with globalization.   have paved the way for civil society. The concept of civil society itself has a historical background that is as old as globalization. It has taken place in the discussion topics of important thinkers such as Rousseau, Hegel, Locke, Gramsci and Marx, and it has been studied multidimensionally. Based on the definition of its current form of civil society is a tool for citizens to shape the public discourse as they want to see and live, and to contribute in different ways, as parts of the inevitable change in society. [4]  Civil society, which come together independently from the state and on a voluntary basis, have created a form of organization, which has become a concept that has expanded as “global civil society” due to the globalization. The conceptual discussions of global civil society discussed by various researchers . It has been claimed by different scholars that they have different orientations with bourgeois society, activist model, post-modern and neoliberal forms. But in general, global civil society serves certain purposes. These are non-governmentality, civilizing model, ideas on human rights and citizenship, cooperation, justice and courtesy rather than national interests, aiming to create a strong discourse beyond nations.[5]

Civil societyemerged as a power independent from the state and its tools, has become multi-actors with the expansion of globalization. Within this multi-actor structure whichcreates global civil society, there are certain communities, academics, students, cultural and religious groups and non-governmental organizations. In the developing and changing system, the global civil society has formed international non-governmental organizations that tend to internationalize. In this way, it has become easier to serve larger masses, more universal purposes. These international non-governmental organizations, which develop on the basis of global civil society, increase their importance in the world today with the strong model they have developed. One of the most important of these models is INGOs that founded on the basis of advocating human rights. These organizations have taken up the unfair use of violence by different groups.[6] In this context, INGOs played a major role in the protection and development of this issue and gained a reputation worldwide. In his article, Taylor emphasized that the conceptualization of global civil society has developed as a social activity of non-governmental organizations operating in the international arena. So much so that the emergence of global civil society has been through international NGOs and the common goal is to create a better world.[7]

Kaldor, a prominent academic in the discipline of International Relations, claimed that the interdependence of states with the globalization process created a global governance system and that developing groups, movements, networks and international organizations in this context made the priority of the state open to discussion.[8] Kaldor has defined global civil society in 3 dimensions according to Wightian tradition. The first of these; it is a structure that strengthens global management and draws attention to issues such as human rights, climate change and women, which aims to create a better world after the 90’s. Second, it is a structuring created by economic structures in which NGOs are the key actors, which she calls the neo-liberal version, and finally non-Western societies, which she calls post-modern. [9] In this context, global civil society as a broad concept is an underlying element of international NGOs. Its importance increases day by day as a power that determines the direction of world politics with the change and transformation it targets.

Globalization and Neoliberalism

Globalization and neoliberalism are concepts that we are used interchangibly. Today, although it has dimensions that complement each other, it also creates an integrity that is most criticized.  Neoliberalism has been an ideology that supports globalization and underpins international market policies. Globalization, which has been seen as a development model in recent years, has followed the traces of neoliberal policies with its economic approaches as well as social movements. Neoliberalism, which guides globalization through certain institutions and regimes, reflects its ideological effect through global institutions.[10] With the development phenomenon that can be defined in the context of neoliberal globalization, market economies and economic policies are now guided by institutional structures such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization and the World Bank, and a control mechanism is established through these organizations.[11] The neoliberal globalization structure taken within the framework of the economy has now increased its influence in social, cultural and political fields and has provided these with multi-actor institutional structures. This structuring process accelerated with the end of the Cold War after the 1990s and has taken shape with the new world order today. The pluralistic and interdependence structure of neoliberal ideology and the concept of globalizing civil society create an increasingly international and transnationalization process. Multi-actor institutions and organizations that have developed in the extension of neoliberal ideology have created the pioneers of world politics, also they are a structure created by globalization. The economy, which is as important as the security and military capacity of states and determines the power position of states in the world, is today managed within a neoliberal framework through international non-governmental organizations, institutions and companies. These actors who form world policies are not only in the field of economy; they have proven their strength as pioneers of development in social, political, cultural and technological fields. According to McCarthy’s discourse, neoliberalism has enabled the transformation of social relations and ties to serve political purposes with international organizations, which are modern institutions in modern life. [12] In this sense, it is possible to say that multi-purpose actors that have developed with globalization are structures that have had a significant role in the world politics.

Globalization and International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs)

As it ismentioned before, the civil society structure and the ideological approach of neoliberalism that developed with globalization created the basis for the development of international non-governmental organizations. International companies, groups, states and organizations that have become more important with the changing world order; they have played a leading role in creating global consciousness and transformation by becoming multinational and actor independent of the state. However, some norms and beliefs that have gained universal character in the world have become important actors in the world politics by serving larger masses through these organizations.

Looking at the post-Cold War period, globalization and civil society as two emerging concepts have greatly influenced world politics and the role of international NGOs in these policies. Changes in economic, political, technological, social and cultural dimensions have laid the foundation for the emergence of new order and actors in the world and the strengthening of INGOs in this context. The increase in global awareness and consciousness has also led to the strengthening of the global community understanding. Democracy, governance and global civil society connection, which play a bridge role in the strengthening of INGOs, have emerged as tools that positively develop the role of INGOs in world politics. The strong spirit of civil society that has developed especially in states such as Europe with a consolidated democracy has led to an increasing internationalization and organization. This, in turn, has been the factors that have developed the role of INGOs in world politics too. INGOs, which have grown rapidly in the last thirty years, are the most dynamic and active part of civil society and are functional structures that develop independently from the state for the sake of citizens’ interests. These structures, which focus on almost every sector, have made great contributions to the world both nationally, internationally and regionally, and it is believed that the structure of the United Nations system will function better especially in human rights, democracy and development systems only with these organizations. International NGOs addressing a wide range of areas within the framework of these important criteria, which are volunteer-based, independent, non-profit and public interest, have made enormous contributions in raising awareness by spreading the issues they draw attention globally.[13]

Reimann, who made a great contribution to the literature in this field by examining the role of NGOs in the world, claimed that NGOs reached a strong position by spreading to non-Western countries in the world with the increase of international political opportunities with political access and financing after the 1990s. He mentioned a developing NGO literature not only in political science but also in fields such as anthropology and sociology.[14] Reimann stated that INGOs developed with globalization which is a political aspect, as I mentioned earlier. Here, they exhibit a structure that is strengthened by the liberal democratic values of the West rather than the influence of sociological and technological forces. In this regard, Reimann provided three evaluations. First, states provided growth opportunities for NGOs for resource mobilization and political access. Second, the inclusion of NGOs in national and international politics for the activism of international norms has paved the way for many countries that suppress NGOs to provide political space and the spread of NGOs to non-Western regions. Thirdly, he argued that the relationships of NGOs and other actors were in a collective grow on functional commitment and mutual interests in this evolving process.[15] The power of NGOs in world politics is that NGOs are encouraged by states to advocate and services are adapted to global problems. In particular, some common goals have been shared between INGOs, governments, and International Governmental Organizations (IGOs). These are relationships that encourage new forms of transnational governance, work together to form international institutions, pursue a foreign policy aimed at aid and intervention in many ways. Also, states have become dependent on NGOs for resources and political access. For the purpose of international cooperation and dissemination of neoliberal values, states see NGOs as an effective tool for these targets.[16]

The methods used by NGOs such as information gathering and analysis, agenda creation and cooperation with states strategically increase their power in world politics.[17] There are important strategies used by INGOs to succeed in creating global consciousness and to become an element of power. For example, the movement created by opening the media to public criticism and challenging human rights violations through various mechanisms has become a strategy of the age. For this purpose, incentives are provided to protect universal values and reduce violations. Doing this with the most effective channels constitutes a strong discourse. Another strategy is to make structural changes in cooperation with national and international authorities and to create a public opinion sensitive to human rights, environmental consciousness and universal values.[18] Furthermore, since INGOs are not subject to the boundaries faced by state actors, they can effectively use more sustainable initiatives.[19]

Looking at the role of INGOs in global governance, it cannot be denied that they have gained an important place. NGO activities greatly contribute to the participation of multinational companies in global governance and value creation. In addition, the activities of NGOs, where they supervise Multinational enterprises, are observed through development efforts such as the UN Global Compact and the Forest Management Council.[20] The increasing role of INGOs in global governance was also driven by the increase in available resources. Particularly, the support of the UN system in this context is great. Thanks to the innovative approaches they represent, their success in bringing up-to-date solutions to old development problems strengthens the model they create.[21] Besides this, The UN has strong statements about increasing the role of INGOs. Especially the establishment of joint committees at World summits within the activities of the UN, making an informal interactive meeting of NGOs in the UN General Assembly in September 2005 and trying to develop the consultative status of NGOs in terms of legal structure are important developments. Examples such as trying to examine the activities of NGOs in the context of the EU Constitutional Convention and providing the opportunity to participate in EU decision-making processes and fixing them with laws show the role of developing strong INGOs and multi-actor organizations.[22]

Conclusion

he world order is in the process of political change and integration, which is evolving in a different direction every day with globalization,. Economic, technological, political, cultural, social and environmental developments have been the factors shaping the global governance we are in. International non-governmental organizations, which have gained a presence by keeping up with all these developments and changes, have taken their place as the most important actor in world politics thanks to their competence and contributions.

When we look at the past in history, the world is in a transformation process in every sense since the existence of humanity. A transformation in the modern sense and today’s context started after the Cold War and is rapidly changing. Different actors were needed in the process of keeping up with this transformation. In this multi-directional transformation, the power of multi-actor structures has emerged with the increase of global unity, common interests, universal values, resource competencies, technological developments and cooperation. The fact that states, individuals, groups and communities provide a global service in line with common goals has enabled these structures to have a say in the global governance of the world. There are many factors that influence INGOs to reach their current power. Of course, the expansion of the civil society understanding that has developed with globalization and the activities in this context play an important role. In addition, with the gaining of neoliberal approaches in the Western understanding, the activities and orientation power of INGOs have increased considerably in both economic and political terms. In this way, they have gained importance as structures that can spread to almost every region of the world and create effective discourses. In addition to these, INGOs have reached a pioneering position through effective and strategic methods used to create global awareness in the world, channels that provide access to many people in a short time and with the increase of technical competencies in the process. These multi-actor organizations have not only developed economically and politically, but have also provided cultural and social gains to the world. INGOs that follow active and normative paths, especially in activities carried out for environmental problems, human rights, peace and implementation of international law, education, health, culture, science and many other fields, have made it compulsory for the powerful states that determine the political tendencies in the world to cooperate with these structures. They receive great support with their agenda-oriented lobbying activities, systems that encourage international cooperation, well-equipped structures in the information and analysis process, and their competence in resources and financing. As a result, the civil society culture that develops with globalization and INGOs, which are the primary actors in the transfer and implementation of some values ​​in the most effective way, are an inevitable element and an important part of the world’s policies. It seems that this INGOs system, which is constantly changing and developing, will continue to increase its importance day by day with its sustainable utilitarian goals.

 

 

SELİN ÇENGELKAYA

SİVİL TOPLUM OKUMALARI STAJYERİ

 

 

 

REFERENCES

CHIMIAK, G. (2014). The Rise and Stall of Non-Governmental Organizations in Development. Polish Sociological Review, (185), 25-44. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24371611

Goel, V., & Tripathi, M. (2010). THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS: An Overview. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 71(3), 769-793. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42748408

Gordenker, L., & Weiss, T. (1995). Pluralising Global Governance: Analytical Approaches and Dimensions. Third World Quarterly, 16(3), 357-387. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3992882

Gupta, V. (2011). ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND HUMAN RIGHTSz. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 72(2), 363-375. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42761421

GÜLER, Begüm, Ş., 2011. Küreselleşmenin Merkezi Aktörlerinden Biri Olarak Avrupa Birliği. Ankara Avrupa Çalışmaları Dergis,i Cilt: 10, No:2, s.47-62

Heron, T. (2008). Globalization, Neoliberalism and the Exercise of Human Agency. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 20(1/4), 85-101. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40206149

Kaldor, M. (2003). The Idea of Global Civil Society. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 79(3), 583-593. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3569364

Kumar, K. (2007). Global Civil Society. European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes De Sociologie / Europäisches Archiv Für Soziologie, 48(3), 413-434. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23999031

McCarthy, C. (2016). THE NEW TERMS OF RACE LIGHT OF NEOLIBERALISM AND THE TRANSFORMING CONTEXTS OF EDUCATION AND THE CITY IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION. Counterpoints, 491, 413-427. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/45157424

McKeown, A., Marx, Engels, Park, R., Millikan, M., Rostow, W., & Castells, M. (2007). Periodizing Globalization. History Workshop Journal, (63), 218-230. Retrieved November 27, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25472911

Radon, J., & Pecharroman, L. (2017). CIVIL SOCIETY: THE PULSATING HEART OF A COUNTRY, ITS SAFETY VALVE. Journal of International Affairs, 71(1), 31-50. Retrieved November 30, 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/26494362

Reimann, K. (2006). A View from the Top: International Politics, Norms and the Worldwide Growth of NGOs. International Studies Quarterly, 50(1), 45-67. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3693551

Rothschild, E. (1999). Globalization and the Return of History. Foreign Policy, (115), 106-116. doi:10.2307/1149496

Şenses, F. (2004). Neoliberal Küreselleşme Kalkınma için Bir Fırsat mı, Engel mi?. Economic Research Center Working Paper in Economic, 04/09. 1-27. August, 2004. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi. https://erc.metu.edu.tr/en/system/files/menu/series04/0409.pdf

Taylor, R. (2002). Interpreting Global Civil Society. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 13(4), 339-347. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27927804

Teegen, H., Doh, J., & Vachani, S. (2004). The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(6), 463-483. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3875234

Yıldız, O. (2006). KÜRESELLEŞME SÜRECİNDE SİVİL TOPLUM KURULUŞLARININ DÜNYA POLİTİKASINDA ARTAN ROLÜ: ULUSLARARASI KURULUŞLAR AÇISINDAN BİR DEĞERLENDİRME. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Uluslararası İlişkiler Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, 2006.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1] GÜLER, Begüm, Ş., 2011. Küreselleşmenin Merkezi Aktörlerinden Biri Olarak Avrupa Birliği. Ankara Avrupa Çalışmaları Dergis,i Cilt: 10, No:2, s.47-62

[2]  Rothschild, E. (1999). Globalization and the Return of History. Foreign Policy, (115), 106-116. doi:10.2307/1149496

[3] McKeown, A., Marx, Engels, Park, R., Millikan, M., Rostow, W., & Castells, M. (2007). Periodizing Globalization. History Workshop Journal, (63), 218-230. Retrieved November 27, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25472911

[4] Radon, J., & Pecharroman, L. (2017). CIVIL SOCIETY: THE PULSATING HEART OF A COUNTRY, ITS SAFETY VALVE. Journal of International Affairs, 71(1), 31-50. Retrieved November 30, 2020, from https://www.jstor.org/stable/26494362

[5] KUMAR, K. (2007). Global Civil Society. European Journal of Sociology / Archives Européennes De Sociologie / Europäisches Archiv Für Soziologie, 48(3), 413-434. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23999031

[6] Gupta, V. (2011). ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND HUMAN RIGHTSz. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 72(2), 363-375. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42761421

[7] Taylor, R. (2002). Interpreting Global Civil Society. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 13(4), 339-347. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27927804

[8] Kaldor, M. (2003). The Idea of Global Civil Society. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 79(3), 583-593. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3569364

[9]Kaldor, M. (2003). The Idea of Global Civil Society. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 79(3), 583-593. Retrieved December 3, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3569364

[10] Heron, T. (2008). Globalization, Neoliberalism and the Exercise of Human Agency. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, 20(1/4), 85-101. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40206149

[11] Şenses, F. (2004). Neoliberal Küreselleşme Kalkınma için Bir Fırsat mı, Engel mi?. Economic Research Center Working Paper in Economic, 04/09. 1-27. August, 2004. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi. https://erc.metu.edu.tr/en/system/files/menu/series04/0409.pdf

[12] McCarthy, C. (2016). THE NEW TERMS OF RACE LIGHT OF NEOLIBERALISM AND THE TRANSFORMING CONTEXTS OF EDUCATION AND THE CITY IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION. Counterpoints, 491, 413-427. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/45157424

[13] Goel, V., & Tripathi, M. (2010). THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS: An Overview. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 71(3), 769-793. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42748408

[14] Reimann, K. (2006). A View from the Top: International Politics, Norms and the Worldwide Growth of NGOs. International Studies Quarterly, 50(1), 45-67. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3693551 pp.45

[15] Reimann, 2006, pp.46

[16] Reimann, 2006, pp.63

[17] Gordenker, L., & Weiss, T. (1995). Pluralising Global Governance: Analytical Approaches and Dimensions. Third World Quarterly, 16(3), 357-387. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3992882

[18] Goel, V., & Tripathi, M. (2010). THE ROLE OF NGOs IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS: An Overview. The Indian Journal of Political Science, 71 (3), 769-793. Retrieved December 4, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/42748408

[19] Teegen, H., Doh, J., & Vachani, S. (2004). The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(6), 463-483. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3875234 pp.472

[20] Teegen, Doh & Vachani, 2004, pp.473

[21] CHIMIAK, G. (2014). The Rise and Stall of Non-Governmental Organizations in Development. Polish Sociological Review, (185), 25-44. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/24371611

[22] Yıldız, O. (2006). KÜRESELLEŞME SÜRECİNDE SİVİL TOPLUM KURULUŞLARININ DÜNYA POLİTİKASINDA ARTAN ROLÜ: ULUSLARARASI KURULUŞLAR AÇISINDAN BİR DEĞERLENDİRME. İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Uluslararası İlişkiler Anabilim Dalı, İstanbul, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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